Research topics

  1. Generating quantum coupled pairs of photons

G2D_scheme_LRAt RBI we have built an experimental setup for parametric down-conversion using home made laser wavelength of 405 nm. Photograph on the left shows cross-section of the light cones exiting the nonlinear BBO crystal.

Quantum entangled “Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen” (EPR) photon pairs are created at the intersections of the cones. For most of the planned research, we need much stronger source of energy-degenerated EPR pairs in order to fulfill the objectives of the proposed research in quantum holography, optical resonators, hyperentanglement, super fast quantum cryptography, random number generation, searching for hidden vector bosons, and so on. The preferred technical solution to EPR generation the current state of the art is to build a source in the VIS-NIR wavelength area, where our innovative detection technology achieves the best performance, by using the well known technique of periodically poled nonlinear optical crystals.

  1. Novel photon detectors and detector characterization methods

In our group we have a strong expertise in building single photon detectors based on avalanche photodiodes driven in the Geiger mode. We are active in developing innovative photon-counting techniques as well as in research of novel methods for characterization of photon detectors. The research conducted in CEMS-Photonics is oriented towards the study and use of quantum properties of individual photons, therefore almost all our experiments depend on the detection and counting of photons. To that end we almost exclusively use photon-counting detectors developed and optimized in our lab.

  1. Holography

The current situation in the field of holography is mainly the use of powerful laser source and a CCD camera to record the hologram. We plan to expand the holographic technology in two new directions: holography with individual photons and quantum holography, and for this we need a new type of positionally-resolution camera sensitive to individual photons.

While holography is used for recording and reconstruction of complex three-dimensional wave fronts, interferometry enables the analysis of static and dynamic changes in these wave fronts. Both techniques, holography and interferometry, have gone through several pathways. One route goes from classic to digital (replacing the photo-emulsion CCD sensors) which opened up new opportunities such as the production of digital holographic interferometric video film in color or vibration monitoring of modal structure in real time. Another development path goes towards recording a scene illuminated by fundamentally lowest intensity of light. In all these segments members of our group have made significant contributions. This second time, leading to ultra-low levels of light or to holography with individual photons and, for the moment hypothetical, quantum holography. Terms of ultra-low-level lighting impose particularly demanding laboratory needs such as special light sources, the matrix of the position-resolved detectors sensitive to individual photons, as well as laboratory space completely devoid of vibration and other disturbances. In return, new research directions could provide original theoretical developments, applications and inventions.

  1. Quantum cryptography and quantum communication

Quantum cryptography allows completely secure transfer of information between two points via a technique for growing a previously existing “small” shared key. Up to now has been proven that the security of quantum protocol guaranteed the laws of quantum physics and even under the assumption that they hold only approximately, ie. if our understanding of quantum physics is incomplete. Practical devices for quantum cryptography has already been commercialized (IqQuantitue, Switzerland and MagiQ, USA), but are currently far from the convenience and price that would allow for wider use. In order to obtain practical devices significant progress on fundamental and technological levels is required.

  1. Search for bosons of the hidden sector optical techniques

Hidden Sectors are groups of fundamental fields that act between them but have very little interaction with the visible world, are common ingredients theories that extend the standard model and strive for an explanation of its parameters and hierarchy. Fields in the Standard Model allows kinetic mixing between the Standard Model and the hidden (1) fields where the boson (now hypothetical) that belongs to the added U (1) group called parafotonom. There is a wealth of theoretical models that provide enough freedom to justify the existence of parafotons with any parameters that are allowed by experimental observations. Kinetic mixing provides a mechanism for the oscillation of photons in the light boson and back that can be used in experiments based on its weak interaction with the visible world. This type of experiment is generally called “the passage of light through the wall”. If the photon on one side of the wall turns into parafoton, he can pass unhindered through the opaque wall. On the other side of the wall, provided that the condition of the balance exceeds parafotons photons, in a suitable low-noise detector will be detected photon. Probability observations signal can be increased by several orders of magnitude using optical resonant cavities on both sides of the wall, which is the path of research which we started.

  1. Quantum randomness of quantum contextuality

Coincidence or randomness is an invaluable resource in many areas of scientific research and practical applications, especially in computer science and ICT security. The classic computer generated pseudo-random numbers that can be useful in some applications, they remain fundamentally deterministic and therefore, at least in principle, predictable detrimental to the security of cryptography. We have proven that quantum cryptography is impossible without local private random number generator or something equivalent that. There are several open issues related accident. Firstly, as of yet we have no definition of randomness. Then there is the question of what is the source of randomness in quantum physics, is there a true randomness or are there hidden variables?

Random Number Generators are one of the hot topics of research in the last decade. However the sharp discrepancy between the number of publications (83 patents per year in the last decade, in 1418 total, countless scientific articles) and the number of just five earned practical quantum random number generator that has ever appeared on shows clearly the conceptual and technical immaturity of this branch. In our opinion, the main problems are the lack of evidence of a coincidence and unrepeatable results. Our research will be directed towards the elimination of these problems.

Quantum randomness is also implicitly contained in quantum contextuality. Quantum contextuality is the property of a quantum system that any of its measurements has a value independent of other compatible measurements carried out at the same time. Hence, measurement results of quantum systems cannot in general have predetermined values and the sets that satisfy this quantum property are called Kochen-Specker (KS) sets. In this area, we already have significant theoretical results and we will continue theoretical and experimental research in this area.

The study of randomness and the principle of generating random numbers can easily result in new EU projects, inventions and cooperation with small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

  1. Scalable quantum computing, contextual and quantum repeaters

Quantum computing is a hypothetical computer paradigm in whose practical realization researchers are working with increasing intensity in recent years. Our group is working on the development on algebraic formalism that could allow universal quantum computing using a direct translation of the standard formalism of Hilbert space to algebraic quantum protocols with built exponential acceleration of computation for certain special class of mathematical problems.


Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia (RBI):

mario.stipcevic Dr. sc. Mario Stipčević, senior scientist at RBI, head of the research unit CEMS-Photonics. Expertise and research topics: new principles and devices for the generation of quantum coupled pairs of photons, quantum cryptography and quantum communication, biomimetic computation, holography at low light levels, quantum randomness, quantum contextuality, diode lasers and photon detectors.
Dr. sc. Martin Lončarić, research associate at RBI. His research activities are in the field of photonics (mainly plasmonics, optical and structural properties of noble metal nanoparticles, metal-dielectric composites and optical thin-film systems; most recently – applied quantum optics). He participated in the development and production of diverse optical and optoelectronic devices and instrumentation with scientific, medical and defence applications. He is responsible for a part of CEMS-Photonics optical test and measurement services.
Dr. sc. Budimir Kliček, scientific associate at RBI. He is doing research in the field of neutrino phyics and application of photonic detectors in that field. He is the leader of RBI group within Horizon 2020 project ESSnuSB, and is representing RBI in ENUBET and JUNO experiments.
Dipl. Ing. Anton Radman, Professional Advisor at Ruđer Bošković institute. Holds a diploma degree in electrical engineering from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing (FER) in Zagreb. Joined Ruđer Bošković Institute in 2003. His expertise and responsibilities comprise the following: opto-electronic systems circuit and PCB design, design of fast logical systems on FPGA platforms, design of software and hardware for control of instrumentation for scientific and industrial applications. He has rich experience in development of medical instrumentation for photodynamic diagnostics and therapy (MediLED diagnostic and therapeutic devices produced at RBI), and implementation of automation and control (thin film deposition system at optical coating facility).
Mag. phys. Matej Peranić, research assistent at RBI. His research activities are in the field of applied quantum optics.
Željko Samec, RBI Technical Associate in the field of design and production of optomechanical systems with experience of working in the optical industry in the management of the production of ophthalmic lenses and thin films and in the defense industry.
Mateja Batelić, undergraduate student. Her research activities are in the field of quantum optics.

Institue of Physics, Bijenička 46, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia (IOP):

Dr. sc. Nazif Demoli, senior scientist at IoP. Head of the Coherent Optics Laboratory at IoP and a leader of the project “Holography and Interferometry under weak illumination”. His early background is in optical pattern recognition with particular interest in designing and optimizing complex correlator filters as well as implementing them using spatial light modulators. His research interests include holography (classical, digital, quantum) and interferometry (laser, holographic).
Dr. sc. Hrvoje Skenderović, senior scientific associate at IoP. His research activities include: Femtosecond laser specroscopy, Direct laser writing with ultrashort pulses, Coherent control by fs pulses, Photoluminescence of thin films and Digital holography. He is Certified Labview Associate Devoloper (CLAD).

University of Rijeka, Trg braće Mažuranića 10, HR-51000 Rijeka, Croatia

Prof. dr. sc. Marin Karuza is associate professor at University of Rijeka and head of the Laboratory for nonlinear and quantum optics. His maim research interests are astroparticle physics and quantum optics. His areas of expertise are: optics in particular Fabry-Perot optical cavities and interferometry, resonators, control loops and LabView.

Humboldt University, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin, Deutschland:

mladen.pavicic Dr. Sc. Mladen Pavičić, senior scientist. Areas of expertise: quantum information, quantum computation, quantum cryptography, quantum contextual models, generation of Kochen-Speker sets, generation and manipulation of entangled qubits.

Talks and Publications

Articles in journals indexed in Current Contents:

  1. F. Acerbi et. al. (ENUBET Collaboration), “Polysiloxane-based scintillators for shashlik calorimeters”, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A956 (2020) 163379, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2019.163379
  2. M. Pavičić,  “Hypergraph Contextuality,” Entropy, 21(11), 1107 (2019). DOI: 10.3390/e21111107
  3. S.Arguedas Cuendis, … M. Karuza (corresponding author), …, “First results on the search for chameleons with the KWISP detector at CAST”, Physics of the Dark Universe 26, art. No. 100367 (2019). DOI: 10.1016/j.dark.2019.100367
  4. N. Agafonova et al. (OPERA Collaboration), “Measurement of the cosmic ray muon flux seasonal variation with the OPERA detector”, Journal of cosmology and astroparticle physics, 2019 (2019), 10; 003, 12. DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2019/10/003
  5. N. Agafonova et al. (OPERA Collaboration), “Final results on neutrino oscillation parameters from the OPERA experiment in the CNGS beam”, Phys. Rev. D 100 (2019) no.5, 051301; DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.100.051301
  6. N. Demoli, J. Gladić, D. Lovrić, D. Abramović, “Digital holography using LCOS microdisplay as input three-dimensional object,” Optik 194, 162877 (2019). DOI: 10.1016/j.ijleo.2019.05.083
  7. M. Pavičić, Mordecai Waegell,  Norman D. Megill and P.K. Aravind, “Automated generation of Kochen-Specker sets,” Scientific Reports,  9,  6765 (2019); DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-43009-9
  8. Matej Par, Igor Repusic, Hrvoje Skenderovic, and Zrinka Tarle,  “Wavelength-dependent light transmittance in resin composites: practical implications for curing units with different emission spectra”, Clinical Oral Investigations, 23 (2019), 12; 4399–4409, DOI: 10.1007/s00784-019-02896-y
  9. M. Pavičić and Norman D. Megill,  “Vector Generation of Quantum Contextual Sets in Even Dimensional Hilbert Spaces,” Entropy, 20(12),928 (2018). DOI: 10.3390/e20120928
  10. T. A. Hamed et al. “Multiscale in modelling and validation for solar photovoltaics”, EPJ Photovolt. 9, 10 (2018). DOI: 10.1051/epjpv/2018008
  11. N. Agafonova et al. (OPERA Collaboration), “Final results of the search for nu(mu) -> nu(e) oscillations with the OPERA detector in the CNGS beam”, JHEP 06, 151 (2018). DOI: 10.1007/JHEP06(2018)151.
  12. N. Agafonova et al. (OPERA Collaboration), “Final Results of the OPERA Experiment on nutau Appearance in the CNGS Neutrino Beam”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 211801 (2018). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.211801
  13. S. K. Joshi, J. Pienaar, T. Ralph, L. Cacciapuoti, W. McCutcheon, J. Rarity, D. Giggenbach, J. G. Lim, V. Makarov, I. Fuentes, T. Scheidl, E. Beckert, M. Bourennane, D. E. Bruschi, A. Cabello, J. Capmany, A. Carrasco-Casado, E. Diamanti, M. Dusek, D. Elser, A. Gulinatti, R. Hadfield, T. Jennewein, R. Kaltenbaek, M. Krainak, H-K. Lo, C. Marquardt, G. Milburn, M. Peev, A. Poppe, V. Pruneri, R. Renner, C. Salomon, J. Skaar, N. Solomos, M. Stipčević, J. Torres, M. Toyoshima, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, M. Zukowski, R. Ursin, “Space QUEST mission proposal: experimentally testing decoherence due to gravity”, New. J. Phys. 20, 108028.R1 (2018) DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/aac58b
  14. A. W. Ziarkash, S. K. Joshi, M. Stipčević, and R. Ursin, ”Comparative study of afterpulsing behavior and models in single photon counting avalanche photo diode detectors”, Scientific Reports 8, 5076:1-8 (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-23398-z
  15. M. Jelovica, P. Grbčić, M. Mušković, M. Sedić, S.K. Pavelić, M. Lončarić, N. Malatesti, “In Vitro Photodynamic Activity of N-Methylated and N-Oxidised Tripyridyl Porphyrins with Long Alkyl Chains and Their Inhibitory Activity in Sphingolipid Metabolism”, Chem. Med. Chem. 13, 360–372 (2018). DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.201700748
  16. N. Agafonova et al., OPERA Collaboration, “Study of charged hadron multiplicities in charged-current neutrino–lead interactions in the OPERA detector”, OPERA Collaboration (N. Agafonova et al.), Eur. Phys. J. C78 (2018) 62:1-8. DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-017-5509-y
  17. M. Pavičić, “Can Two-Way Direct Communication Protocols Be Considered Secure?,” Nanoscale Research Letters, 12:552 (2017). DOI: 10.1186/s11671-017-2314-3
  18. M. Pavičić, O. Benson, A. W. Schell, and J. Wolters, “Mixed basis quantum key distribution with linear optics,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23545-23555 (2017). DOI: 10.1364/OE.25.023545
  19. M. Stipčević, B. G. Christensen, P. G. Kwiat, D. J. Gauthier, “An advanced active quenching circuit for ultra-fast quantum cryptography”, Opt. Express 25, 21861-21876 (2017) DOI: 10.1364/OE.25.021861
  20. M. Pavičić, “Arbitrarily exhaustive hypergraph generation of 4-, 6-, 8-, 16-, and 32-dimensional quantum contextual sets,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 062121-1-25 (2017). DOI:  10.1103/PhysRevA.95.062121
  21. V. Anastassopoulos, …, M. Karuza, … (CAST Collaboration), “New CAST limit on the axion–photon interaction”, Nature Physics 13, 584–590 (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nphys4109
  22. M. Stipčević, N. Demoli, H. Skenderović, M. Lončarić, A. Radman, J. Gladić, and D. Lovrić, “Effective procedure for determination of unknown vibration frequency and phase using time-averaged digital holography”, Opt. Express 25, 10241-10254 (2017). DOI: 10.1364/OE.25.010241
  23. N. Malatesti, A. Harej, S. K. Pavelić, M. Lončarić, H. Zorc, K. Wittine, U. Anđelković, Đ. Josić, “Synthesis, characterisation and in vitro investigation of photodynamic activity of 5-(4- octadecanamidophenyl)-10, 15, 20-tris(N- methylpyridinium-3-yl)porphyrin trichloride on HeLa cells using low light fluence rate”, Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther., 15, 115-126 (2016). DOI: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2016.07.003
  24. M. Pavičić, “Classical Logic and Quantum Logic with Multiple and Common Lattice Models,” Adv. Math. Phys. 2016, 6830685 (2016). DOI: 10.1155/2016/6830685
  25. M. Karuza, G. Cantatore, A. Gardikiotis, D.H.H. Hoffmann, Y.K. Semertzidis, K. Zioutas, “KWISP: An ultra-sensitive force sensor for the Dark Energy sector”, Phys. Dark Universe 12,100–104(2016). DOI: 10.1016/j.dark.2016.02.004
  26. M. Stipčević, “Quantum random flip-flop and its applications in random frequency synthesis and true random number generation”, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 035113 (2016). DOI: 10.1063/1.4943668
  27. M. Pavičić, “Deterministic mediated superdense coding with linear optics”, Phys. Lett. A 380, 848–855 (2016). DOI:  10.1016/j.physleta.2015.12.037
  28. N. Demoli, H. Skenderović, M. Stipčević, “Time-averaged photon-counting digital holography”, Opt. Lett. 40, 4245-4248 (2015). DOI: 10.1364/OL.40.004245
  29. M. Stipčević, R. Ursin, “An On-Demand Optical Quantum Random Number Generator with In-Future Action and Ultra-Fast Response”, Scientific Reports 5, 10214:1-8 (2015). DOI: 10.1038/srep10214
  30. M. Stipčević, J. Bowers, “Spatio-temporal optical random number generator”, Opt. Express 23, 11619-11631 (2015). DOI: 10.1364/OE.23.011619
  31. G. Humer, M. Peev, C. Schaeff, S., M. Stipčević, R. Ursin, “A simple and robust method for estimating afterpulsing in single photon detectors”, J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 3098-3107 (2015). DOI: 10.1109/JLT.2015.2428053
  32. N. Demoli, H. Skenderović, and M. Stipčević, “Digital holography at light levels below noise using a photon-counting approach”, Opt. Lett. 39, 5010–5013 (2014). DOI: 10.1364/OL.39.005010
  33. M. Stipčević, D. Wang, and R. Ursin, “Characterization of a commercially available large area, high detection efficiency single-photon avalanche diode”, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 3591-3596 (2013). DOI: 10.1109/JLT.2013.2286422
  34. M. Pavičić, “In Quantum Direct Communication an Undetectable Eavesdropper Can Always Tell Ψ from Φ Bell States in the Message Mode,” Phys. Rev. A 87 , 042326-1-7 (2013). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.042326
  35. N. Megill and M. Pavičić, “Kochen-Specker Sets and Generalized Orthoarguesian Equations,” Ann. Henri Poincare 12, 1417-1429 (2011). DOI: 10.1007/s00023-011-0109-0
  36. M. Pavičić, N. Megill, P. K. Aravind, and M. Waegell, “New class of 4-dim Kochen-Specker sets,” J. Math. Phys. 52, 022104-1-9 (2011). DOI: 10.1063/1.3549586
  37. Stipčević M., Skenderović H., Gracin D., “Characterization of a novel avalanche photodiode for single photon detection in VIS-NIR range”, Opt. Express 18,17448-17459 (2010). DOI: 10.1364/OE.18.017448
  38. M. Pavičić, B. D. McKay, N. Megill, and K. Fresl, ” Graph Approach to Quantum Systems,” J. Math. Phys. 51, 102103-1-31 (2010). DOI: 10.1063/1.3491766
  39. M. Pavičić, N.D. Megill, and J.-P. Merlet, “New Kochen-Specker Sets in Four Dimensions,” Phys. Lett. A 374, 2122-2128 (2010). DOI: 10.1016/j.physleta.2010.03.019
  40. M. Stipčević, “Active quenching circuit for single-photon detection with Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes”, Appl. Opt. 48, 1705-1714 (2009). DOI: 10.1364/AO.48.001705
  41. M. Stipčević, B. Medved Rogina, “Quantum random number generator based on photonic emission in semiconductors”, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 045104:1-7 (2007). DOI: 10.1063/1.2720728
  42. M. Stipčević, “Fast nondeterministic random bit generator based on weakly correlated physical events”, Rev. Sci. Instr. 75, 4442-4449(2004). DOI: 10.1063/1.1809295

Books or chapters in books:

  1. Stipčević M., Ursin R. (2020) “A No-History, Low Latency Photonic Quantum Random Bit Generator for Use in a Loophole Free Bell Tests and General Applications”. In: Kollmitzer C., Schauer S., Rass S., Rainer B. (eds) Quantum Random Number Generation. Quantum Science and Technology. Springer, Cham, DOI 10.1007%2F978-3-319-72596-3_5 Full text
  2. M. Pavičić and Norman D. Megill, “Vector Generation of Quantum Contextual Sets in Even Dimensional Hilbert Spaces,” in “Quantum Probability and Randomness,” Andrei Khrennikov and Karl Svozil (Eds.), pp. 6-17, MDPI Books, Basel (2019),
  3. M. Stipčević, and Ç. K. Koç, “True Random Number Generators”, in “Open Problems in Mathematics and Computational Science”, Koç, Çetin Kaya (Ed.), pp 275-315 Springer 2014, ISBN 978-3-319-10683-0, URL:
  4. Pavičić, M., “Companion to Quantum Computation and Communication,” Wiley-VCH, Berlin (2013),
  5. Pavičić, M., “Quantum Computation and Quantum Communication: Theory and Experiments,” Springer, New York (2005), 
  6. Pavičić, M., and Megill, N. D., “Quantum Logic and Quantum Computation,” in Kurt Engesser, Dov Gabbay, and Daniel Lehmann (eds.), “Handbook of Quantum Logic and Quantum Structures: Quantum Structures,” pp. 755-792, Elsevier, Amsterdam (2007). arXiv:abs/0812.3072
  7. Pavičić, M., and Megill, “Is Quantum Logic a Logic?” in Kurt Engesser, Dov Gabbay, and Daniel Lehmann (eds.), “Handbook of Quantum Logic and Quantum Structures: Quantum Logic,” pp. 23-47 Elsevier, Amsterdam (2008). arXiv:abs/0812.2698

Talks at international conferences:

  1. Pavičić, M., “Hypergraph-Based Contextuality” (Invited talk), Journées Informatique Quantique 2019, 28 et 29 novembre 2019 – Besançon, France; Abstract; PPT presentation; 
  2. M. Batelić, “Neuronal pulse computing”, 1st Physics or Physicists (P4P) Students Conference, October 3-6, 2019, Skopje, North Macedonia, Abstract, PPTX Oral Presentation.
  3. Peranić, M. Lončarić, A. Radman, M. Stipčević, “The source of polarization entangled pairs of photons and testing bell’s inequality”, 7th International Symposium on Optics & its applications (OPTICS-2019) Yerevan, Armenija, September 2019.
  4. B. Kliček, “ESSnuSB Project”, The 27th International Workshop on Weak Interactions and Neutrinos (WIN2019), Neutrino parallel session, 3-8 June 2019, Bari, Italija, download
  5. H. Skenderović, M. Stipčević, N. Demoli, “Digital holography under restricted conditionsDigital holography under restricted conditions”, 11th Photonics Workshop, March 2018, Kopaonik, Serbia, Book of Abstracts
  6. M. Pavičić and Norman D. Megill,  “Vector Generation of Contextual Sets,” EPJ Web of Conferences 198, 00009 (2019). DOI:  10.1051/epjconf/201919800009  D. Mogilevtsev (Ed.); Quantum Technology International Conference 2018 (QTech 2018), Paris, France, September 5-7, 2018;  Recorded presentatation on Youtube
  7. Pavičić, M., “Can Two-Way Direct Communication Protocols Be Considered Secure?” (Invited Talk), EMN Meeting on Quantum, June 18-22 2017, Vienna, Austria; Program & Abstracts;   Abstract of the paper (A25): pp. 48-99; PPT Presentation; Recorded talk on Youtube.
  8. Megill, N.D. and Pavičić, M., “New Classes of Kochen-Specker Contextual Sets” (Invited Talk), MIPRO 2017,  The 40th International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics, and Microelectronics (IEEE Xplore Digital Library), May 22-26, 2017, Opatija, Croatia, Proceedings of The 40th International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics, and Microelectronics, May 22-26, 2017, Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), POD Publ: Curran Associates, Inc., Red Hook, NY 12571 USA (2017); PPT presentation – Presented by M. Pavičić; Recorded talk on Youtube.
  9. Pavičić, M., “Massive Generation of Contextual Quantum Sets” (Invited Talk), EMN Meeting on Quantum Communication and Quantum Imaging-2016, August 23-26, 2016, Berlin, Germany; pp. 28-29. Web stranica;  Recorded talk on Youtube; Programme and abstracts.
  10. M. Karuza, “KWISP : the radiation pressure sensor”, Identification of Dark Matter 2016, IDM2016,  London 18-22 July 2016.
  11. Demoli, N., Skenderović, H., Stipčević, M. and Pavičić, M. “Photon Counting Digital Holography” (Invited Talk), Proc. SPIE 9890, Optical Micro- and Nanometrology VI, 989003-1-6, May 3, 2016
  12. N. Demoli, “Time-averaged holography using Photon-counting approach” (Invited Talk), Imaging and Applied Optics Congress, 25-28 July 2016, Heidelberg, Germany. DOI: 10.1364/DH.2016.DT2E.1
  13. M. Stipčević, B. G. Christensen, P. G. Kwiat, and D. J. Gauthier, “Advanced active quenching circuits for single-photon avalanche photodiodes” (Invited Talk), SPIE  Defense and Commercial Sensing 2016, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, April 17-21, 2016. DOI: 10.1117/12.2227999
  14. D. J. Gauthier, C. F. Wildfeuer, H. Guilbert, M. Stipčević, B. Christensen, D. Kumor, P. G. Kwiat, T. Brougham, S. M. Barnet, “Quantum Key Distribution Using Hyperentangled Time-Bin States”, Invited lecture, Proc. CQO X and QIM 2 2013, 17-20 June 2013, Rochester, NY, USA. DOI: 10.1364/QIM.2013.W2A.2

Poster sessions at international conferences:

  1. M. Batelić, M. Stipčević. “Improved circuits for a biologically-inspired random pulse computer”, Poster presented at: Humboldt-Kolleg conference “Science and educational challenges facing Europe in the next decade”, October 2019.
  2. M. Peranić, M. Lončarić, A. Radman, M. Stipčević. “Experimental generation of quantum entanglement and testing fundamentals of quantum physics”, Poster presented at: Humboldt-Kolleg conference “Science and educational challenges facing Europe in the next decade”, October 2019.
  3. B. Kliček, M. Tenti. “Search for muon neutrino disappearance at the OPERA experiment in the CNGS beam”, Poster presented at: The 21st International Workshop on Neutrinos From Accelerators, 26-31 August  2019, Daegu, Republic of Korea, download
  4. H. Skenderović, M. Stipčević, N. Demoli, “Digital Holography at Restricted Conditions and Photon Counting Approach”, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe – European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO®/Europe-EQEC 2019), Minhen, Njemačka, 23. – 27. 6. 2019.
  5. H. Skenderović, M. Rakić, E. Klarić Sever, S. Vdović, “Temperature rise in human tooth upon drilling by femtosecond pulses”, 13th European Conference on Atoms Molecules and Photons (ECAMP13), Firenca, Italija, 8.-12. 04. 2019.
  6. Cokarić Brdovčak, L. Djaković, I. Bertović, M. Lončarić, A. Begonja Jurak, N. Malatesti, I. Jurak. “Several mechanisms contribute to photodynamic inhibition of HSV-1 infection”, Poster presented at: 31st International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR) Porto, Portugal, 2018.
  7. Mušković, A. Lesar, I. Gobin, M. Lončarić, N. Malatesti. “The effect of singlet oxygen production and lipophilicity of the photosensitizer in photodynamic activity of N-methylated and N- oxidized pyridylporphyrins”, Poster presented at: 5th Young Medicinal Chemist Symposium, Ljubljana, Slovenija, 2018.
  8. Cokarić Brdovčak, L. Djaković, I. Bertović, M. Lončarić, A. Jurak Begonja, N. Malatesti, I. Jurak. “A novel cationic amphiphilic porphyrin-based photosensitizer effectively inhibits replication of HSV-1 by several different mechanisms”, Poster presented at: Power of viruses, Poreč, Hrvatska, 2018.
  9. B. Kliček, S. Dusini. “Search for muon neutrino disappearance at the OPERA experiment in the CNGS beam”, Poster presented at: XXVII International Conference on Neurtino Physics and Astrophysics (NEUTRINO 2016), 4-9 July 2016, London, United Kingdom, download


  1. N. Demoli, “Optics and holography”, Faculty of natural sciences, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
  2. M. Karuza, “Advanced electrodynamics”, “Structure of matter (lab.)”, and “Experimental methods in physics “, University of Rijeka, Croatia.
  3. M. Lončarić, “Laboratorijske vježbe iz geometrijske optike” and  “Laboratorijske vježbe iz fizikalne optike”, University of Applied Sciences Velika Gorica, Velika Gorica, Croatia

Invited seminars:

  1. M. Stipčević, “Photon detectors, quantum randomness, random flip-flops and their use in ICT security and hyper computation”, May 4, 2016, Special seminar of SEAS hosted by prof. M. Loncar at Harvard SEAS, Lexington, MA, USA. (flyer)
  2. M. Stipčević, “Photon detectors, quantum randomness and their applications in ICT security”, February 19, 2016, Invited seminar hosted by dr. S. Verghese at MIT Lincoln Labs, Lexington, MA, USA.
  3. M. Pavičić,”Two-Way Deterministic Communication Is Like Sending Plain Text under Quantum Protection”, Special Colloquium held at the Department of Physics-Nanooptics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany, on 07.10.2016; Recorded talk on Youtube
  4. M. Stipčević, “Quantum random flip-flop: a novel device for digital and analog signal processing”, March 10, 2015. Invited seminar hosted by Prof. J. E. Bowers, Electrical and computer engineering, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, USA (web page)
  5. M. Pavičić, “High-Efficiency Source of Heralded Down-Converted Separated Photons in Arbitrary Bell States”, Colloquium held at Humboldt University of Berlin, Institut for Physics, Germany, on 15.07.2015 (flyer)

Other talks:

  1. M. Stipčević, “Light and us”, popular lecture given at Elementary School V. Kaleba, Tisno, Croatia. download
  2. M. Lončarić, “Neka bude svjetlost”, Seminar u okviru sastanka Nastavne sekcije Hrvatskog fizikalnog društva održanog 2. lipnja 2016 u Zagrebu.
  3. M. Stipčević, “Svjetlost i fenomen kvantnog sprezanja”, predavanje u povodu Međunarodne godine svjetla u Hrvatskoj akademiji znanosti i umjetnosti 30.09.2015. download
  4. M. Pavičić, “Fotoni i kvantna kriptografija“, predavanje u povodu Međunarodne godine svjetla u Hrvatskoj akademiji znanosti i umjetnosti 30.09.2015.


  1. 2020. M. Peranić – Award for the best poster presentation at the 4-th Conference of PhD students of Faculty od Science, Zagreb
  2. Annual reward of the Ruđer Bošković Institute for scientific article: Eur. Phys. J. C78 (2018) 62:1-8. DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-017-5509-y
  3. Annual reward of the Ruđer Bošković Institute for scientific article: Phys. Rev. D 100 (2019) no.5, 051301; DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.100.051301
  4. Annual Reward of the Ruđer Bošković Institute for scientific article: Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 211801 (2018). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.211801
  5. 2019. M. Peranić – Award for the best student oral presentation at 7-th International Conference Optics & its Applications (OPTICS-2019, for presentation “The source of polarization entangled pairs of photons and testing Bell’s inequality”.
  6. 30.09.2019. M. Batelić – Deans award of Univesity of Zagreb for academic year 2018./2019. for a thesis titled “Pulsed Neural Computing”.
  7. 2019. M. Stipčević – Award for application to competitive project calls, for the project “Single Photon Detectors for Optical Quantum Information Experiments” (SIDOQIE), applied at QuantERA 2019
  8. In 2018., M. Stipčević – RBI’s Award for the best scientific paper in 2017., for the paper “An advanced active quenching circuit for ultra-fast quantum cryptography”, Opt. Express 25, 21861-21876 (2017).
  9. In 2017., M. Stipčević – Member of Editorial Board of Nature’s Scientific Reports
  10. In 2016., M. Stipčević –  Special award for outstanding contribution to the strengthening of scientific excellence and the reputation of Ruđer Bošković Institute
  11. In 2015., M. Stipčević – Outstanding reviewer for AIP Review of Scientific Instruments, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 089801 (2015). DOI: 10.1063/1.4927606
  12. In 2015., M. Stipčević – IRB Director Award for 2015 in the category of encouraging competitive projects applied at HORIZON 2020 for the project “iSEQURE”

Appearance in media:

  1. M. Pavičić, “Death of the Moore law” (in Croatian), commissioned paper in the journal SmartInfoTrend, Vol. 213, pp. 10-14 & p. 81, Q4, November 2019.
  2. Tehnologija koja mijenja svijet_ projekt _Quantum Technologies Flagship_ _ Hrvatska –
  3. Interview of M. Stipčević in IT magazine MREŽA (The Net) December 2019.
  4. In the radio program “Oko znanosti” of Croatian radio, an interview titled “Kvantna kriptografija”, broadcast on 01.04.2019. (in Croatian).

Science of Graphene and Related 2D Structures

G2D_scheme_LRThe mission of the CEMS research unit Science of Graphene and Related 2D Structures (G2D) is to provide a framework for highly competitive level of research on the international level, which is focused on graphene and related 2D materials, to gather a team of scientists
capable of acquiring funding from most competitive EU and other international funding sources, and to promote research motivated by applications of direct interest for the Croatian hi-tech, SME, and industrial sectors. The synergy of the G2D and CEMS as a whole is ubiquitous for achieving those objectives.

The scientific focus of the G2D is on graphene, a 2D crystal of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice, and follow-up 2D materials which complement graphene and extend versatility regarding physical and chemical properties and related applications. The research on graphene runs at an intensive pace for almost a decade now, being one of the most active fields in today’s scientific research in general. The potential of 2D materials to revolutionize technologies was recognized globally, which poured considerable research funding around this topic. For example, the Graphene flagship programme by the EU invests one billion Euro in the period 2013-2023 specifically in a direction of future emerging technologies (FET) based on graphene and follow-up 2D materials.

The capacities of the team are based on our own research results on graphene, which stands on equal footing with respect to industrially far more developed countries, as well as on a broad expertise concentrated in the team in versatile topics that can be streamed towards 2D materials-related topics. This enabled us to develop a concept based on a closed cycle of research involving different types of innovative synthesis, a broad range of characterization methods and a strong support in theoretical modelling, thus granting for G2D’s independence and open innovativeness. The strength of the team should be emphasized. All team members are in the middle or early stage of their career, highly productive, with the track records ranking them among top scientists in Croatia.

Photonics and Quantum Optics

The mission of the Photonics and Quantum Optics Research Unit of Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials and sensors (CEMS-Photonics) is carrying out fundamental research in the field of photonics and quantum effects in nonlinear optics as well as promotion of Photonics and Optics in Republic of Croatia.

The main research interests of our group are: quantum communication, quantum entanglement, quantum cryptography, biomimetic quantum-assisted computing, holography at low levels of light, photon-boson interaction, quantum computing, quantum randomness as well as development of advanced materials and technologies for new detectors and sources of light.

The originality of our approach to the above research topics  is that we intend to use quantum effects, such as emission and detection of single photons, quantum entanglement etc., as the main tools in the quest for answers to open questions. Some of the outstanding issues that are currently in the focus of our interest are: security and the range of quantum cryptography, holography of objects that do not reflect light, searching for hidden boson particles beyond the Standard Model of particles, generation of random numbers, quantum and quantum-assisted computing. We use and develop a broad variety of experimental techniques, in particular: innovative single-photon detectors, pulsed laser light sources, single and double Fabry-Perot resonators, stabilized continuous single-mode lasers, femtosecond spectroscopy, laser writing, nonlinear effects in homogeneous or periodic nonlinear crystals etc.

The ambitious research program of CEMS-Photonics covers topics that are on the very front of the scientific research and have a great potential for new scientific discoveries, generating new technologies and innovations.

New Functional Materials

Attributing the key role of materials research in the technology advancement has been recognized as crucial for the economic development of modern societies. Materials research has generated countless advances in areas such as electronics, information technologies, automotive and aerospace transportation, biomedicine, energy storage as well as nanotechnologies. The Center’s research unit New Functional Materials (NFM) will be devoted to the synthesis, characterization, simulation and developing of new functional materials for support and implementation of high-tech industries in Croatia. One of the aims of the NFM is to assemble the efforts, integrate people and promote interdisciplinary research of the RBI laboratories in materials science, the sensor research group of the KONČAR – Institute for Electrotechnik, Institute of Physics and Department of Physics of Medical Faculty, University of Zagreb. It is based on the past successful materials research already presented at RBI and partner institutions. The NFM will bring together established leading researchers and prominent young scientists in developing cutting edge ideas in synthesis, characterization and application of new metal oxides, semiconductors, metallic, ceramic, and electronic materials into manufactured products. The tailored materials are intended to boost both basic and applied research. A combination of the chemical and physical approaches is aimed to accelerate the discoveries of new functional materials through innovations in synthesis, measurements, modeling and applications. The CEF is distinguished by the state-of-the-art materials preparation and characterization facilities, dedicated personnel, and a strong commitment to engaging industrial participants in collaborative research. The CEF will also provide enhanced educational initiatives towards the primary goal of fueling economic growth of the Zagreb’s region and collaborate with other materials NFMs of excellence throughout Croatia as it grows. The NFM will also cooperate with researchers outside the academia and establish ties with leading Croatian industries.

Ion Beam Physics and Technology

Ion beams of MeV energies are standard research tool in many areas of science, from basic nuclear physics to various topics in materials and medical studies. Besides the accelerators, experiments in these different physics fields share many other aspects, like many methods and techniques in both experimental work and data analysis. Here we start from these common features of experimental work and propose research plan for extensive studies in ion beam analysis, material physics, radiation detectors and low energy nuclear physics. Common instrumentation basis of the proposal is the accelerator complex of the Ruđer Bošković Institute which is the largest research facility in Croatia and the only one providing trans-national access to EU researchers within the FP7 program. State of the art techniques that already exist at the facility are excellent basis for the proposed research topics. . Another important ingredient for success of the proposed center is skilled, experienced and internationally recognized staff. Involved researchers have not only scientific expertise in these topics but also large experience in execution of internationally funded projects.
Interaction of ion beams with target matter is in the focus of all experimental approaches. Knowledge on the basic processes of ion interaction with matter will be used to characterize unknown target materials and in particular their composition. Novelty of this analytical approach is investigation of processes that are sensitive to chemical composition of the sample, such as desorption of surface molecules that could be analyzed by time-of-flight spectrometry. Considering controlled modification of the material, investigations of effects that ions have on the nanometer scale could be used to develop a novel nano-structuring tool. Recent discovery of quantum dots ordering using ion beams encourages this field of research. If an ion microbeam exposes radiation detectors, investigation of charge collection processes could be used to develop novel detector types. Here, investigations of diamond as a future sensor material offer numerous possibilities. Such developments will have, among others, strong impact to investigations of basic phenomena of nuclear physics, for which some particular accelerated ions collide with known target isotope with aim to investigate nuclear reactions. Using the RBI and other larger accelerator facilities, experiments will be proposed which target the key questions in understanding of nuclear collective phenomena (pairing, clustering), and nuclear astrophysics.
Finally, development of state of the art instrumentation, irradiation and analysis techniques, materials structuring tools and related technology, will ensure wider application of know-how in other research fields, in applications of public importance and in transfer of knowledge to industry, generating large impact on general society.